Another talk of Wolfgang Hofkirchner at the Jiaotong University in Xi’an, China, held on 5 April 2016, addressed the new challenges facing the methodology of social sciences. The lecture dealt with critical assets in social theory dating back to Karl Marx and how they can be adapted to fit the reality of the world of today. The lecture focused on the aims, the scope, and the tools of critical thinking in social sciences. Hofkirchner gave for each focus an example that showed in what respect the original assumptions of Marx would need to undergo modifications. These examples are the concrete utopia of a Global Sustainable Information Society, the role of the common good, and the capacity to reflect upon the societal relationships, all of which take advantage of modern systems theory developments.